. . . . . . . . in (mostly) his own words


Of Denmark . . . . The inhabitants generally are of good stature, clear of complexion, well coloured, for the most part healthfull and long-lived: for though they eat and drink beyond measure, they have good digestions. In manners very severe, crafty and provident in the managing of their affairs; but proud withall, and . . . great vaunters of whatsoever they do or say, highly opinionated of their own actions, and preemptory in maintaining their own opinions
 Peter Heylyn, Cosmographie 3d Edition, (1665)
 15. Aug 1687: I went to visite my L. Clarendon &c at Swallowfield, where was my L: Cornbury just then arrived from Denmark, whether he had accompanied the Prince of Denmark two months before & now come back: The miserable Tyrannie under which that nation lives, he related to us: the King keeping them under by an Army of above 40000 men all Germans, not daring to trust his owne subjects: notwithstanding which, that the Danes are exceedingly proude: The whole country very poore & miserable: &c here was my L: Montrah & Lady, after dinner I returned to Bagshot
 de Beer (ed); The Diary of John Evelyn, Oxford, (1955)
Tis so little time that soveraignty has been in this country to that degree that it is, that they are jealous, that everything might awaken the people & let them know what they were.
BL add mss 41828 f308, Dispatch from Fotherby, Copenhagen, July 17th 88


The Fr Ambassador at Copenhagen had all ye confidance of his master was favourd by y’ K of Den & his whole court. The interruption of the neutrall traffick wch we then set about (& had compassd easily if my advice had been taken) irritated ye spirits of those wch before did not love us, so that they unanimously wishd our misfortunes, & because I maintaind ye interest of England and my master with as great constancy & boldness as possible, & more then I ought, considering y’ little encouragement I had from England (wch the Danes knew as well as I did) they hated me as well as our cause. & upon my departure from thence (wch then was supposed to be only for a season) I had not the usuall present made to publick ministers, nor ever got it since: upon wch I made them my present & printed a true account of ye state of that countrey. That book setts out y’ mischiefs of Arbitrary power as then practised in Den: how it came to be construed to be levelld at the king I cannot possibly imagine. but so it is that even ye most innocent & best actions appear only in such light as those that represent them have a mind to sett them in: I appeal to ye book it self.

BL add mss 61639 f3-4 (c 1712)
It being no more than thirty two years since [this alteration] happened; and many remaining yet alive, who remember the days of Liberty, and in their private Discourses with their Friends and Children make Comparisons between the past and present times, and condole with them the loss of so great a Blessing;
Acct. p 265
[Christian V] beloved rather than reverenced by his People: who are sensible that the present Form of Government, concurring with a King of a severe temper, would be altogether intolerable. . . . his Subjects do really believe . . . that all hardships that fall upon them, have their rise from the Ministry.
Acct. p 150
[The taxation maintains] a great standing Army: so that the People are Contributors to their own Misery; and their Purses are drained in order to their slavery.
Acct. p 123
The weight of [taxes etc. is ] so great, that the Natives have reason rather to wish for, then defend their Country from an Invader; because they have little or no Property to lose, and may probably thereby mend their Condition, when there is scarce a possibility of making it worse.
Acct. p 120
It is not to be imagined by those that see it not, what a comfort it is to the Sufferers to be ill used alike: for Poverty and Riches being only such in proportion; provided men be treated like their Neighbours, they grumble not;
Acct. p 247
The Condition, Customs, and Temper of the People . . . do so necessarily depend upon, and are influenced by the Nature and Change of Government,
Acct. p. 75
 Without doubt, were Copenhagen a free City, it would be the Mart and Staple of all the Traffick of the Baltick. . . . Hamburg, which being a free City, and consequently a rich one,
Acct. pp 13, 35
nothing is so generally studied by Soveraign Princes of the World, as the Arts of War, and the keeping of their own Countreys in the desired subjection. The Arts of Peace, whereby the encrease and prosperity of their Subjects might be promoted, being either intirely neglected or faintly prosecuted;
Acct. Preface p xxxxvii
[The business of a Gothic prince] was to see a due and impartial Administration of Justice executed according to the Laws; . . . to be watchful and vigilant for the welfare of his People, to Command in Person their Armies in time of War, to encourage Industry, Religion, Arts and Learning; and it was his Interest, as well as Duty, to keep fair with his Nobility and Gentry, and to be careful of the Plenty and Prosperity of his Commons.
Acct. p 46
 The thriving of any one single person by honest means, is the thriving of the commonwealth wherein he resides. And in what place soever of the world such encouragement is given, as that in it one may securely and peaceably enjoy property and liberty both of mind and body; ’tis impossible but that place must flourish in riches and in people, which are the truest riches of any country.
F-G p. 15
 No man can be a sincere lover of liberty, that is not for increasing and communicating that blessing to all people; and therefore the giving or restoring it not only to our brethren of Scotland and Ireland, but even to France itself (were it in our power) is one of the principle articles of Whiggism.
F-G p 20
 the supporting of parliamentary credit, promoting of all publick buildings and high-ways, the making all rivers navigable that are capable of it, employing the poor, suppressing idlers, restraining monopolies upon trade, maintaining the liberty of the press . . . . to die in defence of our own and the liberties of Europe are all of them articles of my Whiggish belief,
F-G p. 34
 Let . . . application be made speedily, to set us at liberty, that no monopolies may obstruct the right of nature and charity:
Consid. p. 42
 Monopoly . . . as pernicious in divinity as in trade, and perhaps more.
F-G p. 13
 It is not Popery as such, but the Doctrine of a blind Obedience in what Religion soever it be found, that is the destruction of the Liberty, and consequently of all the Happiness of any Nation.
Acct. p 259
 I profess myself to have always been a member of the Church of England, and am for supporting it in all its honours, privileges and revenues; but as a Christian and a Whig, I must have charity for those that differ from me in religious opinions, whether Pagans, Turks, Jews, Papists, Quakers, Socinians, Presbyterians, or others.
  F-G p. 12
 I should think it no ill policy or husbandry, if the publick paid the yearly salaries to the popish priests, . . . and that the poor lay roman catholick tenants were eas’d of it: This contribution wou’d amount to no great sum on the establishment; five or six great unnecessary pensions suppress’d, wou’d answer it; and this wou’d one principal means to engage the priests . . . in the true interest of the government:
Consid. p 30
  Now as to Agriculture, I shoul humbly propose, that a School of Husbandry were erected in every county, . . . In these schools, I wou’d not have any precepts, difference or distinction of religions taken notice of, and nothing taught, but only husbandry and good manners; and that children should daily serve GOD, according to their own religions, this school not being the proper place to make proselytes in:
Consid. pp 30-31

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